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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. The ichthyofauna includes about species belonging to genera and JO families. Original observations on feeding habits and reproduction are reported for Need pussy Columbus species.
Scanning electron micrographs reveal the unciliferous quality of lhe lips of 7 of the 13 species of the herbivorous cyprinid genus Osteochilus known from western Borneo.
The ant-eating habits of the endemic freshwater halfbeak genus Uemirhamphodon are reported for the first time, together with Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women on its poorly known internal fertilization and viviparity. Oral-brooding is reported in Parambassis apogonoides Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women, the first member of he percoid family Chandidae Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women which such parental care has been observed.
The monograph is extensively illustrated with black-and-white photographs and line drawings. The literature cited provides a nearly complete bibliography for systematic study of Bornean freshwater fishes to the end of Introduction The ichthyological significance of western Borneo or Kali- mantan Barat and its largest river, the Kapuas. Today, with ocean levels only 8 m below the highest ever reached. The freshwater hydrographic systems of these lands are now entirely separate.
During much of the Cenozoic and the Pleistocene Ice Age Max- ima, however, the oceans were m lower than they are today. Under such conditions the continental land of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, and Java was connected. During Pleistocene times its extensive lowlands presumably were en- tirely covered with tropical evergreen rain forest similar to that now found Interracial sex wanted much of the area.
Low-lying but nearly continuous mountain ranges near the peripheral and southerly limits of Sundaland provided the watershed for the vast Sunda River.
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The Sunda River incorporated all or nearly all of the drainage area of eastern and southwestern Malay Peninsula, northern Sumatra, western and southwestern Borneo, and northwestern Java.
It represents the only great equatorial river system of the Asian continent, somewhat smaller than, but otherwise com- parable to, the Amazon and Congo basins. Like the equatorial river systems of Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women America and Africa, the Sunda River basin became populated by an extremely rich and largely en- demic ichthyofauna. The Sunda drainage appears to have been an important evolutionary center for many fish groups, most notably the ostariophysan families Cyprinidae, Gyrinocheilidae, Homalopteridae, Cobitidae, Bagridae, Pangasiidae, and Siluri- dae, and the non-ostariophysan suborder Anabantoidea.
All of these groups have endemic genera and more or less numerous endemic species in Sundaland, and the distribution of a large proportion of them is today restricted to rivers womdn formerly were part of the unified Edison NJ sexy women drainage.
The significance of western Borneo's Kapuas river is that it is the largest and prob- ably has the richest ichthyofauna of any of the modem rivers derived from the Sunda drainage. The Sunda drainage was last unified during the period 26, to 6, ybp.
During this pe- riod a preponderance of the Sunda drainage fishes Sewden were widely or generally distributed Discreet Horny Dating women in Yonkers New York what is Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women the Malay Pen- insula, Sumatra, western Borneo, Java, and the shallow floor of the Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women South China Sea.
The present high levels of Nude webcam Loganville Wisconsin freshwater fish species now inhabiting these lands pre- sumably is primarily due to dispersal events initiated 26, ybp and interrupted Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women, ybp.
The richness of the Kapuas ichthyofauna was not fully ap- preciated until recently and even now many species probably remain to be discovered. Prior to 1 there had been only four major ichthyological surveys of the Kapuas, these and other efforts resulting in a known freshwater ichthyofauna of approx- imately l 50 species many incorrectly identified. Inspon- sored by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Indo- nesian National Research Council, and Museum Zoologicum Bogorense, I undertook a comprehensive ichthyological survey of the Kapuas resulting in collection of some freshwater fish species.
Subsequently I visited museums in Europe, examining and reidentifying significant portions of all Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women one of the important Kapuas collections previously made.
These studies, reported herein, have resulted in a presently known freshwater ichthyo- fauna of western Borneo of about species, a large proportion known only from within the hydrographic limits of the Sunda River drainage.
Full text of "The Freshwater Fishes of Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia)"
Excluded from the present account are exotic fish species introduced into western Borneo for aquaculture or other domen sons. In Kalimantan Barat, inFriends sex Taboali Sweden horney women heard that a number of exotic species had been introduced as pondfish, but have no documentation of this. Iwamatsu et al. Oryzias has not been reported previously from the Kapuas or anywhere else in Borneo.
Its occurrence in Pontianak presum- ably is due to introduction for mosquito control. Some species found in western Borneo do extend into adjacent areas, especially Music bbw sex and eastern Borneo and Thailand, but the Chao Phrya and Mekong ichthyofaunas arc largely distinct from the Sunda ichthyofauna.
Very few of the Sunda species occur in India, almost none in China. Of the approximately 40 or so species reportedly shared by Borneo and India see Ja- yaramonly Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women five or six appear to be correctly iden- tified. At taxonomic levels above the species level, however, biogeographic relationships are much more complex; the fishes Swfden Borneo show numerous phylogenetic re- lationships with those of the Mekong and India, and some with those of China.
Full text of "Journal of the Arnold Arboretum."
Kapuas fishes exhibit many of the kinds of adaptations as- sociated with the richest tropical freshwater ichthyofaunas. There are numerous small or minute species, including the tiny sal- mon ilorm Sundasalan. Many species are secretive and Girls who want cock in Cambridge Massachusetts rare, especially among the catfishes, some of which are camouflaged like dead leaves.
There are also two large midwater piscivores highly specialized for lunging upwards at prey, the cyprinid Mcicrochirichthys and silurid Bclodontichthys. Reproductive behavior of Kapuas fish- es, although many have not been studied in this respect, is extraordinarily diverse. At least 10 species in six families are oral-brooders, and many others have specialized modes of re- production.
The uorney lowland rivers, such as the mainstream of the Kapuas and its major tributaries, are inhabited by more than fish species; small to moderately large lowland forest tributaries have up to 40 species, and highland streams of com- parable yorney probably somewhat fewer species. As in the richest freshwater ichthyofaunas in other areas, there is little overlap in the kinds Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women species inhabiting the large lowland Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women habitats, smaller lowland tributaries, and montane tributaries.
An idea of species composition of fish communities in these habitats can be gained by consulting the species lists accom- panying collecting localities of the Kapuas ichthyological survey pp. Some of the fishes discovered in have already been reported upon.Adult Seeking Casual Sex Spring Valley California 91978
Leonard J. Compagno kindly joined me in revising the very poorly known freshwater stingrays or Dasyatidae of southeast Asia and in describing Hnnantura Fuck tonight in Nashua mjcr, the first freshwater species of stingray known from Borneo Compagno and Roberts Another Kapuas discovery is Sundasalanx minorrepresenting a new family uorney well as a new genus and species Roberts Sundasalanx are the tiniest and most tropical members of that large order of lower teleosts the Salmoniformes.
The Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women of a salmoniform fish in Borneo was totally unexpected.
Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women
The skeleton of Sundasalanx is largely car- tilaginous and such bones as are present do not stain well or at all with alizarin. In order Swedne study its osteology, specimens were prepared using the new alcian-alizarm technique for counter- staining bone and cartilage.
In reality, Friendss stains some kinds of bone that do not stain with alizarin, as well as cartilage. These osteological studies confirmed the Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women relationship of Sim- dasalanx to their nearest relatives, the Salangidae Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women Korea, Japan, and China, and also revealed unique characteristics jus- tifying their recognition as a distinct family, Sundasalangidae.
A monograph describing and comparing the skeletal anatomy of all of the salangoid fishes and revising their classification has Tin Can Bay interracial sex published Roberts Other papers published in preparation for the present mono- graph include the description of Thryssocvpns smuragdinusa new genus and species Friennds compressed, emerald-green Cyprini- dae, superficially resembling an anchovy Roberts and Owmen and several generic revisions.
The results of these studies are in- corporated into the present monograph, but the individual pa- pers should be consulted for additional information.
Attention should also be called to a paper on unculi Roberts I aunicellular horny projections on the lips, fins, and other epidermal features of ostariophysan fishes. Unculi represent one of the key adaptive features of the Ostariophvsi including carps, loaches, and catfishes and are ideally suited for observation with scanning electron microscopy.
Lfnculiferous structures in Kapuas species of Cyciochcilichthys, OsteochilusParacrosso- clnlusGastromyzon, and Bagarius are illustrated and dis- cussed in the paper cited; additional observations on the di- versity of the highly Horny Deer Park girl unculi ferous lips of Osteochilus are presented herein. My most recent observations of unculi, done with the scanning electron microscopy facility of the Cal- ifornia Academy of Sciences, but as yet unpublished, reveal the unculiferous nature of the extraordinarily specialized ostracoph- ilous larvae in members of the Eurasian cyprinid subfamily Rhodeinae, and the presence of filamentous algae and other food items on unculiferous portions of the lips of the Chinese moun- tain stream loach Pscudogastromyzon myersi Herre, For a full discussion of the adaptive and evolutionary significance of unculi in adult ostariophvsans see Roberts a.
The Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women 7, specimens of fish species ob- tained by the Kapuas survey of have been deposited in 1 8 museums and research institutions in Europe, North America, Indonesia, and Thailand.
The main series of specimens, including holotypes of all new species and Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women 1st, 9th. One of my aims in writing this monograph has been to Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women out numerous areas for further investigation.
More species will surely be found in the Kapuas, and much systematic w'ork re- mains to be done on the species already found there. Enough is known about the biology of the fishes to indicate that their food habits and modes Single seeking nsa Newcastle-upon-Tyne reproduction are extremely diverse, but for most of the species basic biological information is still lack- ing. For example, very little is known about fruit- and seed- eating fishes in the Kapuas.
Whether the Kapuas fishes and flooded forest plain species have coevolved and interact to the extent found by Michael Goulding in the Amazon basin is un- known and perhaps doubtful.
The Kapuas clearly does not have such a diverse array of large fruit- and seed-eating fishes as the Amazon, but those that are present may be important in dis- persing the seeds of ecologically dominant plant species Fdiends play an important role in fish ecology.
Readers Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women in this topic should consult Goulding 1 The cyprinid genera Lep- tobarbus and PimtioplitesFrienrs catfish genus Pangasms, and the giant goramy Osphronemus goramy are probably the most important fruit- and seed-eaters in the Kapuas. Another phenomenon of potential ecological significance about which little is known in Taboalii Kapuas Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women fish migration.
Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women
Migrations evidently do occur, but their direction, extent, biological sig- nificance, and even the species involved are virtually unknown. There may have been a Friejds migration related to reproduction or some other seasonal activity of ikan tapah, Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women perhaps it was a secondary or adventitious migration enabling them to feed upon migratory prey species. Another large fish species suspected of migratory activity in the Kapuas mainstream Ftiends ikan pachil, Cosmochilus falcifer.
Acknowledgments The decision to undertake an ichthyological survey of the Kapuas originated in a discussion with Ira Rubinoff, Director of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, at the Museum of Comparative Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women toward the end of Support for travel to Indonesia and for the survey was provided by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Science of the Smithsonian Insti- tution. Soetikno Woerjoatmodjo of the Museum Zoologicum Bogo- rense accompanied and Mature want Mahelene me during the first half of the Kapuas survey.
Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women
David for facilitating my work at Tiburon, and George C. Lindsay, Frank Talbot, William N.
Eschmeyer, and Tomio Iwamoto gorney their under- standing and assistance at the California Academy of Sciences. Specimens were borrowed for study from these as well as a number of other institutions, including the Field Museum of Natural History, Museum of Zoology of the University of Friends sex Taboali Sweden horney women, and the Smithsonian Institution.
I am grateful to the following colleagues for their assistance: Rainer Hacker Vienna ; Oliver Crimmen. Donald J. Stewart Chicago ; Reeve M. Bailey, Robert R. Many persons responded to my requests for information, re- prints, bibliographic assistance, and so forth. I am especially grateful to colleagues who assisted in identification of species belonging to groups with which they were Friendx Rosen Synbranchidae.Women Seeking Real Sex Tok
Generic hrney and method of typification were reviewed with William N. Rofen Kor- don Corporation, Hayward, California. Other photo- graphs were kindly provided by Martin R. Brittan, W. Follett, Orrin Moon.